Many vineyards use fungicides and pesticides throughout the growing season to increase their yield. When applying fungicides coverage is very important; so a super fine, small droplet is preferred. Some vineyards also apply herbicide directly on the ground or floor of the vineyard. When contact herbicides are used coverage is the main goal, and a fine to medium sized droplet is suggested. Systemic herbicides are absorbed into the plant, so a more course droplet size can be used for this application.
Orchard spraying requires fungicide and insecticide spraying on large, complex plants. Farmers utilize high pressure air blast sprayers to ensure coverage on the entire tree. This requires nozzles that produce fine droplets at high pressures. Ceramic nozzles are commonly used for orchard spraying because they have the ability to handle the abrasive chemicals better, like zinc or copper fungicides. For fruit and nut trees in the spring and summer months, because of the fruit trees having leaves, drift control while floor spraying becomes very important. In the fall and winter, these trees aren't as susceptible to herbicide contact due to their bark being much more resistant to chemical uptake than leaves, so drift is less of a concern.
Grove spraying is done with an air blast sprayer, which uses high pressure and wind to help cover the tree with fungicides or insecticides. A small sprayer is used to apply herbicides using flood nozzles on the floor of the grove. For grove spraying, drift reduction is the main concern for herbicide application.